We continue with verbs and concentrate on the words "come" and "go" in the 2nd and 3rd Aspects. The explanation of nouns is also begun.
Someone comes to the door and says:
|Visitor:||Maali̲, jï̲̩n a thï̲̩n?
You are at peace, you are present?
|You:||Ɣɔ̲ɔ̲n, maalä̲. Ɣä̲n a thï̲̩n, Go̲o̲ri̲ ni̲ ŋu̲?
Yes I am at peace. I am present, what do you want?
|Visitor:||Ɣä̲n göörä̲ ki̲i̲m. Jɛn a ni̲? Jɛn a thï̲̩n?
I want Doctor. Where is he? Is he present?
|You:||Ɣëc, cɛ wä̲ duɛ̲ɛ̲l wal mïndan.
No, he went (to) house of-medicine a-little-while-ago.
|Visitor:||Ɣɔ̲ɔ̲, cɛ wä̲ duɛ̲ɛ̲l wal mïndan.
Oh, he went (to) house of-medicine? It is good.
|You:||Ɣɔ̲ɔ̲n, ci̲ wu̲t bɛ̲n mïndan, gatdɛ tëë kɛ juc̲y, kä̲ ci̲ ki̲i̲m ɛ nɛŋ duɛ̲ɛ̲l wal. Jɛn a thï̲̩n täämɛ.
Yes, man came a-little-while-ago, his child has sickness, and doctor him took (to) house of-medicine. He is present now.
|Visitor:||Ɛ jɛn, gɔaaɛ. Cä̲ wä̲.
It is so. It is good. I have gone.
-ë- 1. This sound is difficult. It is best learned by drilling. It is formed by pushing from the diaphragm
-e̲- 2. These sounds are not difficult but they require drilling because they differ from relative English sounds.
3. Practice previous drills.
An explanation of subject word order in the three aspects of the verb is given here simply for recognition. Each is commonly used.
|WORD ORDER CHART|
|Informal Meaning||Distinctive Meaning||Emphatic meaning|
|1st Aspect||Ɣä̲n wa̲a̲.||Wä̲ ɤä̲n.||Wä̲ ni̲ ɤä̲n.|
|2nd Aspect||Ɣä̲n cä̲ wä̲.||Ci̲ ɤä̲n wä̲. (E. Nuer)||Ci̲ wä̲ ni̲ ɤä̲n.|
|3rd Aspect||Ɣä̲n bä̲ wä̲.||Bi̲ ɤä̲n wä̲. (E. Nuer)||Bi̲ wä̲ ni̲ ɤä̲n.|
Note: In the 2nd and 3rd Aspects when the subject follows the verb particle, the free or unassimilated form of the
particle is always used. When the subject precedes the verb particle, or is understood, the assimilated
form of the particle is used.
e.g. [Ci̲ ɤä̲n wä̲.] or [Ɣä̲n cä̲ wä̲.]
A Nuer noun has 4 cases when feasible and the vowel change indicating the cases are usually unpredictable so that every case of each noun must be learned almost as a separate word. (cf. Precis under Noun Cases)
The 4 cases are: nominative, objective, genitive and locative.
|Nuer Field Project||Nouns||Verbs||Verb Book||Expressions||Grammar||Genesis||Others|