Extra Lesson 5
This lesson explains the Relative of Degree of Distance. The previous relatives indicate present or past time,
the following relatives indicate any of 3 distances as expressed in the
demonstrative prons. -- nɛmɛ, nɛmɔ, nimi.
The relative pronouns of distances are [ɛ], [ɔ], and [i] in the singular and [ti], [tɔ], and [ti] in the plural. They mean
"this who", "that who" and "that way over there who". They must agree with their antecedents in number. These
relatives generally occur as a couplet enclosing the entire relative clause, as will be illustrated.
GROUP 1C -- 1st Aspect of the Verbs within the Relative Clause
- Cih wuht ɛ diiht ɛmɛ ɛbɛhn.
- Cih dhoohl ɛmɛ ɛ tɛh puɔhnydɛ kɛ juehy ɛ bɛhn ruac kɛ ɤäh.
- Cih ram ɛmɛ ɛ buhm lɔcdɛ ɛtɛt ɛ bɛhn ɤuac kɛ ɤäh.
- Cih ram ɛmɛ ɛ tɛh rhaar jiaath ɛmɛ ɛ bɛhn mindaan.
- Cih dhoohl ɛmɛ ɛ tɛh duɔɔhr rhoodɛ ɛluhny jɔk.
TRANSLATION -- The relative pron. is [ɛ] and it means "this who" making a specific distinction in distance.
- This big man came.
- The boy who is ill (lit. whose body exists with a disease) came and spoke with me.
- This strong hearted person came and spoke with me.
- This person who is under this tree came a little while ago.
- This boy who has something in his mouth returned.
Note: The relative pron. occurs in couplet form enclosing the relative clause. In sentence 5 the couplet changes to
ɛ ... mɛ because [m] is affixed to [ɛ] before another vowel.
GROUP 2C -- 2nd Aspect / 3rd Aspect of the Verb within Relative Clause
- Nɛmɛ ɛ jɛn ram ɛ cih rɔw nähk mëëpan
- Ram ɛmɛ ɛ jɛn ram ɛ cih bɛhn mindan.
- Duɔɔhr ɛmɛ ɛ jɛn duɔɔhr ɛ bih ɤähn ɛ gohr yɔɔ.
- Ruac ɛmɛ ɛ jɛn ruac ɛ cih ɤähn ɛ liŋ mindan.
- Dhoohl ɛmɛ ɛ jɛn dhoohl ɛ bih bɛhn ihruuhn.
- This is the person who killed the hippo yesterday.
- This person is the person who came a little while ago.
- This thing is the thing which I will want later.
- This talk is the talk which I heard (it) a little while ago.
- This boy is the boy who will come tomorrow.
GROUP 1D -- 1st Aspect of the Verb within the Relative Clause
- E jɛn ram ɔ lihw ɔ.
- Ram ɔ tɔɔhc ɔ thaar jiauth ɛmɔ ɔ ɛ jɛn guaahr.
- E jɛn dhoohl ɔ ruac ɔ.
- E jɛn ciɛhk ɔ guk ɔ
- Ɛ jɛn biih ɔ gööräh mɔ.
- That's the person who's dying.
- That person who is lying down underneath that tree he is my father.
- That's he the boy who's talking.
- That's she the woman who is fighting (arguing).
- That's it the cloth I want.
Note: Sentence 5 illustrates a relative clause with the subj. indicated in the verb and the object of that verb being
the antecedent of the relative pronoun see Lesson 4.
Note: The 3rd relative pronoun of distance [i] is used the same way as [ɛ] and [ɔ]. It will not be written here due to its
Note: The Plural Relative Pronouns must all agree with their antecedents in number. e.g.
- Wahtnih tɔtɔ tɔ tɛh thaar jiaath tɔ kɛ jih duëël wal.
- Ɣɔhk titii ti tɛh kuihci mi ti kɛɛ ɤɔhkɔn.
- Ŋɔaunih tihtih tih cih jihn kɛ nööŋ mëëpan gööräh kɛ.
- Tihtih kɛ kɛn ŋɔaanih tëë caa lohk ɛ kɛn.
- Bäh jih lahr ŋɔak tëë cih ɤähn kɛ liŋ mëëpan.
- Those men who are under the tree are people of the clinic.
- Those cows which are away across over there are our cows.
- These things which you brought (them) yesterday, I want them.
- These are the things which were refused by them.
- I will tell you the things which I heard yesterday.