This lesson covers the negative passive in all 3 aspects.
Two fellows are talking and the one asks the other:
||Jï̲n, ŋa̲ci̲ ruac duëël ɛmɛ i̲ baa jɛ la̲t i̲nɛy?
You, do you know the talk of this house as to when it will be built?
||/Ka̲n ɛ la̲r i̲ pan? Cä̲ jɛ liŋ i̲ ci̲ kuä̲ä̲r ɛ la̲r i̲ mëëpan.
Was it not told you yesterday? I heard it that the chief told it to you yesterday.
||Ɣëc, duɛ̲l ɛmɔ, thïlɛ mi̲ ŋa̲cä̲ thï̲n. Kua̲cä̲ ni̲ jɛ mi̲ baa
No, that house I know nothing about it. I don't know it if it will
||jɛ la̲t kiɛ mi̲ /caa jɛ bi̲ la̲t. Dɔ̲ɔ̲ bi̲ ruac ɛmɔ ku̲ lɛ jɔɔc walɛ.
be built or if it won't be built. Perhaps that talk will appear today.
||Mi̲ /caa jɛ bi̲ la̲t, ɤä̲n bä̲ jiɛɛn la̲t ɛmɛ. Bä̲ wä̲ ro̲o̲la.
If it won't be built, I will leave this work. I will go to our country.
- Read the dialogue aloud with the informant listening especially for the correct intonation in the questions,
and for tone on the passive particles.
- Work on drills.
- The passive negatives follows the same general pattern as in the active voice by using negative particles
with the verb.
1st Aspect Negative Passive:
- The 1st Aspect Passive Negative particle [caa] occurs with the verb stem to form the negative construction.
The word order is the same as in the positive. This construction is the same as the 2nd Aspect Passive
except for tone. The negative tone is hi on [caa]. The positive is lo on [caa].
- /Caa jɛ la̲t. -- It isn't being done.
2nd Aspect Negative Passive:
- The 2nd Aspect Negative Passive is formed by the negative passive particle [/ka̲n] and the passive verb
stem. The word order is the same as in the positive.
[/Ka̲n] differs from the 2nd Aspect 1st person Negative particle in tone only. [/Ka̲n] is always lo tone.
- /Kà̲n kɛ́ nàŋ. -- They were not taken.
- /Ká̲n kɛ̀ nàŋ. -- I did not take them.
3rd Aspect Negative Passive:
- The 3rd Aspect Negative Passive is formed by the negative passive particle [/caa], and the receiver
subject in the objective case, and the 3rd aspect verb particle [bi̲], and the passive verb stem.
- Caa kɛ bi̲ naŋ walɛ. -- They will not be taken today.
Passive Negative Word Order
||Neg. Verb Part.
Note on Nouns:
- Such nouns as country, village, hearth
etc. are seldom spoken of as "mine", "yours" or "his" but are considered a
communal possession and are referred to as "ours", "yours" (pl), and "theirs".
e.g. Bä̲ wä̲ ro̲o̲la. -- I will go to our country.